Please see Acknowledgments listed below due to space.

Friday, September 10, 2010

Pearl Claypoole

A baby photo of Pearl Claypool(e), from the photo album of Annie Elizabeth (Bowser) Claypoole.

Pearl Blanche Claypoole (Jan. 24, 1903 - ) was the eldest child who survived infancy of Alexander Claypoole and Laura E. (nee' Bowser) Claypoole.  Pearl was married to John H. Boyd

My thanks to my cousin Lois Welton Morrison for access to the photo album.

Tuesday, August 17, 2010

Images from "Genealogy of the Claypoole Family of Philadelphia, 1588 - 1893"

Below are scans from my personal copy of Rebecca Irwin Graff's Genealogy of the Claypoole Family of Philadelphia, 1588 - 1893, published privately for the author by J. B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, 1893.

I have only included photos that show scenes from England.  The illustrations are of a high quality, and show the Manor House, Gate House, Chapel, and Coat of Arms.

The structures are somewhat (although only cosmetically) different today than they were in the 1890's when these photographs were (presumably) taken.  The Manor house was at that time derelict and had served as former farm house, and the chapel, which is part of the Norborough village church of St. Andrew's, was not built by or for the Claypoole's; although the family tomb is located in it, the Chapel was built about 200 years before the tomb was erected.  I hope to present a more thorough history of the Church and Manor house as well as photos from the 1990's when public access was granted to the interiors of both for the sake of my Mother and Father who were touring the UK at the time.  In the church photo you will see the tomb of Sir John Claypole, and a glimpse of the main church is visible through the arch, the church in circa 1890 was still in regular use, you will see features from earlier modifications to the church from the late 17th or 18th centuries in the presence of high walled boxed pews in the main church (just visible in the photo).  These are gone today, and would not have been there when the Claypooles were resident in the village.  In the post I had earlier believed the church to be closed, but Barry Chapman reports that it is still in use, which is very good news.  The Church can be visited if you are in the neighborhood, I highly recommend it.

The lovely engraving of the coat of arms lacks the Latin motto, "Nil Desperandum" or Never Despair, and is uncolored.

Tuesday, August 3, 2010

Additional information on Lawson Claypool(e)

My thanks to Judy Renshaw for sharing some additional information concerning Lawson Claypoole.

According to Judy, Lawson was hit at night after having been taken to church by Alice Claypoole for Wednesday evening prayer meeting, and in the dark parking lot (there being no exterior lights at the church yet), after dropping him off and maneuvering the car she accidentally struck him while backing up, it being winter and he was dressed in dark clothes and most of the cars being black in those days it was nearly impossible to see.  Uncle Law suffered a broken nose and no hard feelings.  She also put the date closer to 1947 or 48.

She also remembered that the death of his wife Jennie was related to a fall down the steps in their small farm house, (the house in West Franklin Township is no longer standing).  Whether Jennie had suffered a stroke, heart attack, or other distress or simply fell is unknown.  She was found at the bottom of the stairs deceased in 1950.

Monday, August 2, 2010

The Charles and Merle Claypoole Family Farm circa 1910

One of three photos of the farm currently owned by Mervin Claypool and previously owned by Merle Claypoole, Charles Claypoole, Thomas H. Kerr, Peter Kerr Jr., and Peter Kerr Sr. in Worthinton, PA.  The farm is currently located at the intersection of Claypoole Road and US Rt. 422.

These Photos were taken in 1910 or 1911 and a copy of one was mailed to Charles Claypoole a little over a year later by the family of Peter Kerr.  The photo they sent was one of the ubiquitous photo post cards of the era, by T. H. Kerr who had taken the photos.  The text reads:
On reverse side find a picture of your teams, etc / Those crabs made dandy jelly and lots of it. [crab-apples] / Yours T. H. Kerr - The card is post marked, August 3rd, 1911.

Charles Claypoole purchased the farm in 1902 from the Kerr's and Charles later sold it to his son Merle in stages beginning in 1946.  The farm was then sold after Merle and Alice's death (in 1985 & 1989 respectively) to their second cousin Merv Claypoole and Ray Claypoole Jr. in 1991.

The Kerr's moved to Pittsburgh after selling the farm in Worthington and returned to photograph the farm in 1910 as a keepsake.  These photos were unknown to our family until an elderly gentleman approached my mother at the Armstrong County Folk Festival in 1985 where she was doing free blood pressure readings for the VNA of Armstrong County.  An elderly man approached her and introduced himself as Thomas Kerr, he had taken some photos of her family's farm and he thought she might like to have copies.  They have been a treasured possession ever since.

The photos give a very good sense of the 19th century life style of Armstrong County's farmers and record the appearnce of the farm from about 1870 to 1914-23.  In the period of the mid 1910's to early 1920's Charles Claypoole expended large amounts of money to remodel, revamp, and rebuild the farm in a more up to date style.  I will include more information with other photos, the boy driving the team is believed to be Clark Claypoole.

Abraham Claypool(e)

After a conversation concerning dark sheep among the tribe of Claypool(e), I came across some notes on Abraham Claypoole - if anyone has any information on this man who lived in East Franklin Township in the early to mid 1800's I would be glad to share your information if you are willing to share it, I am assembling my notes on him for a short bio., also I am putting together some photos to fill out the Lawson story.  It may or may not involve a murder.

Saturday, July 24, 2010

A Biographical Sketch of Lawson Claypool(e)

Some thoughts on Lawson Claypoole

            Lawson Claypoole is one of those interesting relations from the past who engenders legends.  There are very few of those among the Claypoole’s, they were (by most accounts) a pretty regular lot, and so the lack of horse thieves, bank robbers and famous poets means "we’ll take what we can get.” 

            Lawson has a few legends attached to him, but sadly, they are mostly untrue.  Of course one of the reasons said legends were attached to Lawson, as they might have said in the old days, was his lack of issue, he had no children.  And those without children are the first to slip into obscurity after their deaths, unless a surviving relative or friend acts as a sort of posthumous advocate, even so, in time that relative or friend passes, and the persons fades to nothing but official jottings.  I hope that anyone that reads this post, and who can share or add anything to my sketchy biography of Lawson, will be kind enough to send the information to me for incorporation in a new updated biography, and/or post the information in comments section to help fill out his and his wife Jennie's story, sadly, I know next to nothing about Jennie.

            To begin with – this is a very incomplete sketch, a work in progress – I began my Claypoole work a little over a year ago afresh, but since April I’ve been mired in two massive and important professional research projects that have taken the bulk of my time, and since the middle of May personal and family obligations have also taken the priority they deserved and in some cases demanded.  I have other sources to re-check and double check, and to check for the first time in creating this entry, I will mention them in passing as needed to indicate the lacunae in my research below.  As I fill in the blanks with further research on this subject, I will add comments to this post and in time when all seems complete, I'll create a new post.

            Let me address the burning question.  Lawson was never a millionaire, although he did lose much money in the stock market crash of 1929, sadly there are no floating Claypoole millions to be reclaimed by one of his long-lost descendants.

Notes, including on Sources:

It must be noted that Lawson's name appears in all records before 1920 as Lawson Claypool, and occasionally after 1920 as Lawson Claypoole, or the older Claypool; his tombstone is inscribed Claypoole.

Lawson was the son of Harvey Claypool(e) and Margaret (Nancy) (Zellefrow) Claypool(e).  It should be noted that the use of the “e” in the family’s last name came and went with an interesting regularity in the 19th century.  Dates for Lawson’s life are gleaned from three sources, the Claypoole books by Evelyn Claypoole Bracken, the U. S. Census records, and Lawson’s tombstone.  Other information is garnered from census records, interviews with people that knew Lawson personally, and other court house, church and privately preserved documents.

Biographical Sketch (a draft)

            Lawson was born in 1867 to Harvey and Margaret (Nancy?) Zellefrow Claypool(e).  The 1870 Census lists Lawson as 2 years of age on June 2nd.[1] Also his still standing tombstone at Franklin Union Baptist Church, just outside of Worthington, Pennsylvania lists his birth year as 1867.[2]  His age is also reported by Evelyn Bracken, her ultimate source is unknown, if there was/is a Harvey Claypoole family Bible it may have been shown to Evelyn Bracken, (although it seems her information came from Bernice Claypoole and from Bernice's memory or personal notes and not a primary written source), if so any Harvey Claypool family Bible exists it's current whereabouts are unknown.  Bracken reports Lawson’s birth date as a year only, again 1867.[3]

            Lawson was raised on his father’s farm in West Franklin Township, Armstrong County, Pennsylvania, and his place of residence is listed as there consistently through every succeeding United States Census that is available for study.[4]  Lawson is never listed as being unable to read, we can assume that he acquired a basic grammar school education, although no record remains for this.  Harvey’s family valued education and two brothers received post grammar school degrees.  Lawson was close to his brother’s Alexander and Charles, serving as a witness at Charles’ wedding in 1897.[5]  Besides working on his Father’s farm, he hired himself out to other local farmers for wages.

            The records of Franklin Union Baptist fail to list him as being baptized into Church membership in any roll book, yet he appears in the various church records in the 1880’s and 1890’s and beyond, a process that needs to be traced out – which is frankly very odd, he must have been a member, as he was delegated to various tasks open only to members, yet no baptism or membership is recorded for him; likewise a family story reports that in the 1910’s or perhaps earlier his brother Charles reported him to the Deacons for dancing.[6]

            In the 1920’s he worked to purchase his father’s farm by buying out the inherited shares of his other relations, a detail documented in his father’s will.  A will I consulted in my earlier research in 1992-7, all of my original research that I did not maintain in notebooks was lost on a computer hard drive crash, I need to re-read the will.

            Lawson worked to purchase his siblings share of their father’s farm in the 1910’s and 20’s, and he also began to speculate in the stock market during this period and began to build up a large amount of corporate shares as speculative investments, including some purchased with borrowed money,[7]  with the market crash in 1929 Lawson found his tax and loan obligations greater than he could manage and the farm was eventually sold in 1933 to the Beer’s family.[8]

            Sometime in the 1920’s Lawson married Jennie Murtland, ten years his junior, and a telephone operator from Butler County who had also stayed at home to care for her widowed father and younger siblings on their farm near the border with Armstrong County.[9]  Based on the information from the 1930 census they must have married between 1922 and 1924.  Jennie would predecease Lawson by about year.[10]  By the time of the market crash Lawson’s farm was listed at a value of $7,500, he also owned property in Kittanning, PA.  He also, interestingly, didn’t own a radio.[11]

In his old age he lived in a small house in West Franklin Township with his wife and at his death his estate was barely able to cover the costs of his taxes, funeral and tombstone expenses.[12]  I need to research more property deeds, and his will.

Those who remembered Lawson spoke of him as a gentle, quiet man, who worked hard, and seemed cursed with ill-luck, he enjoyed dancing, music, and his wife who was also a quiet person.  They had no children and married late in life.  Lawson was known as “Law” and was seen most often without shoes, in fact he hated foot ware and went bare foot nine months of the year, excepting a trip to town or church, town being Kittanning, I don’t know if the little burgh of Worthington received the same deference or not.  The only other story I’ve heard of Lawson was the time my grandmother, Alice Claypoole, hit him with a car in the parking lot of Franklin Union Baptist.  She was just learning to drive her in-law’s new Plymouth and while backing up hit the elderly man on his way out the door from Sunday services.  He survived with no visible injuries and lived for several more years, this was sometime around 1946 or 47.

He died May 11, 1951.

If anyone else can help me fill in additional information about Lawson I would be very grateful, except for group photos, I do not have any individuals portraits or photographs of Lawson, and I have seen none of his wife.

[1] Page, 2 of the Schedule 11 West Franklin Township book accessed via at URL:
[2] Author’s inspection of standing marker.

[3] Bracken, Evyln, Claypool pg. 94, entry 540: Harvey Claypool, Lawson, entry 1041.
[5] Presentation Marriage Certificate in the possession of Fay Anne (Claypoole) Cook., other information supplied by Dorothy Claypoole in an interview, March, 1996.
[6] Interview with Anna Bowser, October 1996, and Franklin Union Church records volumes I-III.
[7] Interviews with Dorothy Claypoole, March- October 1996.
[8] Information from Tax documents provided by Vivian Roofner.
[9] US Census Records for Butler County 1870-1920, accessed via,

[10] Tombstone, Franklin Union Baptist Church cemetery.
[11] US Census Records for Armstrong County, 1930, Kittanning, and West Franklin Township, accessed via,
[12] Interview with Dorothy Claypoole, March 1996.

Saturday, February 20, 2010

Old Union Baptist Church History

The 150th Anniversary History of Old Union Baptist Church is now complete on my other blog The Digital Annex - this book has much early Claypoole family history connections.

I hope you enjoy it and can find some useful information.


Wednesday, January 20, 2010

Old Union Baptist Membership List

The entire membership list as printed in their 150th Anniversary book is now available at the Digital Annex.

In a day or two the entire history will be available as it is now scanned.

Thursday, December 17, 2009

Claypool(e)'s at Union Baptist Church

I am going to begin a series of posts over at my other blog The Digital Annex - each post will be a scan of the 1948 History of Union Baptist Church in Cadogan, PA.  "Old Union" is the church founded by James Claypoole of Armstrong County.  I'm posting it there because it has tie-in's to many other local family and history issues, but it is of great importance for the descendants of James Claypoole.

Tuesday, November 24, 2009

Harvey Claypool, Birthday Bash, 1919, Part 2

See comment on blog entry below.

Harvey Claypool Birthday Bash, 1919 Part 1

The first half of the group photo taken in 1919 for Harvey Claypool's birthday.  I have an enlargement purchased at our family reunion in 1996, so I apologize as it doesn't fit onto my scanner.

Wednesday, November 11, 2009

Thank you, Veterans!

My grandfather Merle G. Claypoole, mugs with his young Brother-in-law, Raymond McMunn, March 1943.  My collection.

Sunday, November 1, 2009

The Cousin's Class

An end of year school momento for Noble School No. 4, part of the then Worthington West Franklin School District, later absorbed into the Armstrong School District from 1926-26.  My personal collection.  Almost everyone listed is directly or indirectly a James Claypoole descendant or relation.

Monday, October 26, 2009

Charles Claypoole

A late 19th century photo of Charles Claypool(e) 1870-1962.

Saturday, October 17, 2009

A New Blog...

I have created another family and/or local history blog at, mainly to help me organize things better on this blog. I call it The Digital Annex and you can access it through my profile. On that blog I will post things that are indirectly related to the Claypoole family, and yet might be of use to other researchers. Some items will probably appear in both blogs especially some of the photos. You might want to look it over when I actually post something interesting there! Hopefully it will be a place where stray and otherwise lost clues and people might be found. I always accumulate stray bits of information and I might as well share them.

A few notes about my postings here:

I am exploring all descendants, as well as allied families, of James Claypoole of Armstrong County, but at least for now, not in a truly systematic way. One reason for the somewhat topical approach is lack or recent work on this material. I haven’t done much in this line for some time, I also just moved and that was more chaotic than planned, so as I unpack I'm trying to organize my material and I thought that by providing it online for the enjoyment and enlightenment of others was an excellent motivator, it forces me to be more focused on organizing, preserving and transmitting this information.
N.B.: I will not post photos of any living individual(s), nor will I write about any living individual beyond stating they are the child of so and so, except when I have obtained their written and verbal permission to do so.

I hope those that find this site will alert me to any errors so I might also improve the quality of the material. Some photos or articles may need to be reposted at a later date if significant new materials or corrections are forthcoming.

I am still struggling to find an appropriate template to follow for providing the information here, and I may also re-post for that reason. Please note this is a work in progress for a more traditional Claypoole book I’ve been working intermittently since 1994/5. I had lost interest after I suffered a huge computer crash in 1999 without adequate backup of my materials and I frankly didn’t feel up to the task of starting over. I realized that I need to push on and Louis Claypoole, Kathie Young, and Barry Chapman have all fired me up to do so again.

Also when this blog goes exploring the allied families or the distaff family lines, I will probably only go back one or two generations at most (unless something significant needs to be unearthed), and if I have a surfeit of material on those lines I will return to them later, or more likely I’ll create a separate blog to manage that/those family line(s).

Two cases in point: My grandmother Claypoole's maiden name was McMunn and at some point I will probably start a McMunn and/or Miller Family page to provide a similar service for her line, the same with the Cook line.

In some cases the relatives of James Claypoole are heavily inter-married often through several generations. This will provide a challenge, so please help if you can. I am also more interested in mining the ancient part of the family in Armstrong County say 1770-1890, for more detail to flesh out the realities of daily life. I don’t want to create a comprehensive family tree type site (though that may be a by-product), but rather bring people back to life where that is possible through magnifying and focusing all the surviving source material. I will post information here, first in factual digests, and then later create narrative histories with illustrations, photos, and footnotes, the whole nine yards.

As I post things I will try to acknowledge my sources even in the embryonic stage.

Photos that I know are still copyrighted will not be posted without permission from the holder, when I doubt I would ask you not to copy, paste, or link them to any other site without contacting me first.

I will also attempt to eventually house my entire collection of copies and original family photos and documents on line for the benefit of all, and to help preserve them from wear and tear, destruction, or loss.

I hope you enjoy!

Happy Hunting!

Marion Claypoole

If you are new to this blog and you are interested in the Marion Claypoole line of Armstrong County, please visit the Claypoole Connections photo pages at Facebook.  A link is proved to the left.  Some wonderful photos have been posted there of Marion and his family circa 1916 by Louis Claypoole.

Charles & Annie E. Claypoole Family, 1921

The family of Annie Elizabeth (nee Bowser) and Charles Claypoole, Worthington, Pennsylvania 1921.
This photo is a copy of an original owned by Dorothy Claypoole.
This photo was taken behind the farm house originally built by the Kerr family and purchased from them in 1902 by Charlie and Annie; in 1922/24 the house pictured here was demolished and replaced by the house that still stands on Claypoole Road.
The individuals in the photo are from left to right:
Grace Claypoole, Clark Hobart Claypoole, Vernon Roy Claypoole, Charles Claypoole, Merle Glenford Claypoole, Annie Elizabeth (Bowser) Claypoole, Dorothy Anna Mae Claypoole, Ruth (Claypoole) Welton, William Harvey Claypoole, Warren Valentine Claypoole, Essie June Claypoole

Friday, October 16, 2009

Blogs still in progress

I am still working on bio.'s of Lawson and Burleigh Claypoole, I hope to finish Lawson's soon.  If anyone who stumbles onto this blog knows anything about Lawson or remembers him or knows someone who does please leave a comment.

Many thanks!

2nd of Two Bowser Photos

Here is a group portrait of Elizabeth (Stephenson) Bowser, wife of Valentine Bowser II, and her surviving children.  Standing from left to right is Lureena "Lu" Bowser (who I believe married a cousin Franklin Bowser?), Miller Bowser, Valentine Bowser III, Sarah "Sade" Malissa (Bowser) Laufferty, seated Harvey Bowser and Elizabeth "Zizzy" (Stephenson) Bowser.  The photo was most likely taken sometime between 1885 and 1897. The date has been deduced from the absence of the other children who were deceased by 1885, e.g. Mary Ann is missing, she died in 1885; also Valentine III appears in a nearly identical photograph taken with his daughter Anne Elizabeth Bowser prior to her marriage in 1897 to Charles Claypoole.  My thanks to Jennifer Bowser who allowed me to have a copy of this photo from her family's collection.

1st of Two Bowser Photos

Martha (Bouch) Bowser (1848-1886), wife of Valentine Bowser III.  To my knowledge her only surviving photograph, from her daughter Anne Elizabeth (Bowser) Claypoole's photo album.  This is from a tin type photo circa 1868-1886.

Saturday, October 3, 2009

The Family of Harvey Claypoole

      My thanks to Louis Claypoole for supplying this wonderful photo.
Beginning with the back row, from left to right: Charles Claypoole, Susanna Claypoole?, Alexander Claypoole?, Minerva Claypoole?, Lawson Claypoole, Seated: Burleigh Claypoole? or Marion?, Harvey Claypoole, Thomas Claypoole?, Margaret Claypoole (nee Zellefrow), Marion Claypoole? or Alexander? or Burleigh?.
      The names have been deduced from the birth order of Harvey's children, and it's my guess that this photo dates from approximately 1886/9 based on the sitters apparent ages.  Harvey had two children die in 1880, the same year that his youngest and last child Thomas was born.  Therefore based on the number of people I am guessing a date of between approximately 1886 and 1889, especially since Charles Claypoole is obviously a young man of about 18 years of age.
      Two individuals beside Margaret and Harvey are easy to identify, Charles Claypoole who bore a very similar appearance throughout his life, and Lawson the oldest son.  Several others are more difficult to identify without more information or other photos to compare, especially the daughters.  Further help is greatly desired, if you can help identify the sitters more accurately please post a comment.

Wednesday, September 30, 2009

Warren Valentine Claypoole, circa 1928-1938

This photo if still under copyright, belongs to the Leister family of Kittanning.  Please do not reproduce without my and/or their permission.  This is a photo of Warren Valentine Claypoole, son of Charles and Anne E. (Boswer) Claypoole taken in the late 1920's or early 1930's.

Marion Claypoole, circa 1885-1895

Another photo from Anne E. Claypoole's photo album, identified in pencil as Marion C.  Based on the age of the sitter, and the type of photo card, my guess is late 1880's to late 1890's.

Alexander Claypoole's children circa 1910-15?

Here is a photo of (I believe) Alexander Claypoole's children taken around 1910 or 1915.  This was in my great-grandmother, Annie Elizabeth Bowser Claypoole's photo album.  Perhaps someone could help in naming the children and provide a more exact date.  This is on an unmailed and undated photo-postcard.

Preview of Upcoming Attractions

Just to let you know I’m working on the following blogs that I hope to have posted over the next three weeks as time and research permits.

First – Lawson Claypoole

Lawson and his wife Jenny didn’t have any children, and I would like to post what information I have on him online in the hopes others can add to it, or point me to other sources of information.

Second – The problem(s) with Harvey

There are a number of difficulties when researching about Harvey Claypool(e), I intend to list them, document them, and ask for help and clarification if anyone can.

Third – Burleigh Claypoole

I will post the verifiable information I have assembled on Burleigh as soon as I can double check some sources and assemble the documentation.

Fourth – An annotated Bibliography of Claypoole Sources available to the public

I hope this will be an ongoing project that will lead to a permanent separate website as an aid to all of us involved in the process of researching the family tree. I will be listing all the public records, books, and online sources with some descriptions for the benefit of all researchers, those of you who have more online savvy, and deeper experience, your contributions will be most welcome.

Fifthly, and Lastly – I’ll begin an online family photo gallery of the items in my collection and to help supplement the great one begun at Facebook’s Claypoole Connection.



Sunday, September 27, 2009


My thanks again to Barry Chapman for testing the blog out and for reporting a problem with the links.  He noted that they weren't...well...working.

I think the problems have been repaired and all of the links should now work.

Please take some time to see them all, espcially Barry and Kathie's work - it is the best online Claypoole information you will find.


Friday, September 25, 2009

So it begins...

The First Blog.

I hope other relations, local historians, and genealogists will find the information posted here accurate, useful and entertaining. In a sense the title of this blog is a bit inaccurate, or at least a little misleading, because most of the posts will have little or nothing to do with James Claypoole; he is merely the point of departure. The dates of his life, the terms of his residency in Armstrong County, and his descendants are all that can be safely known about we shall see what was once "known" about him, must now be un-"known".

This blog will most likely be taken up with the lives of James’ descendants. I suspect that little new information about James himself is likely to appear in the ensuing years, although there is always hope. However I think that much information remains to be pieced together to form the biographies of his numerous descendants, and I hope with the help of many other hands, that the work may progress and together we may form a more complete picture of our shared history.

I hope others will write and make use of this blog to help me sort out our common past, and perhaps understand ourselves a little better in the process.

Nil desperandum,

Eric Cook


This will be far too brief to begin with, so please forgive me if I ommitt anyone or anything, but there are really too many, but I wanted to thank those who were first or foremost in the process that lead to the creation of this blog.

First my Mother, Fay Anne, who opened my eyes to the richness of our family history, and my father James who ensured that I could proceed down this path.

My grandparents Merle and Alice who personified the good old ways.

My Aunts: Judy, Shirley and Nancy for helping and sharing at all times.

My great Aunts and Uncles, especially Dorothy, Vern, and Beatty without whom so much information would have been lost.

The congregation of Franklin Union Baptist, who opened their attics, minds, and hearts to me.

To Evelyn Claypoole Bracken without whom we could hardly proceed into the past at all (or perhaps receded?!).

To the many cousins who share so often so much.

And most recently and most especially to Barry Chapman of Tasmania, Australia and Kathie Young, who have together resolved something that had truly begun to puzzle me, and whose excellant research is summarized on the Claypoole Family website. And to my sister Erin, who helped stoke the fires of memory.

I will add and update specific thanks and acknowledgments in the places where they are most appropriate. Especially for contributions to original research. I hope to properly credit all researchers original work, and/or to thank those who have allowed me to see and share historical sources whether they are stories, documents, or artifacts.

Also I hope to properly list and acknowledge any secondary sources of information, so that others may check, rethink, verify, and explore the threads of this story.

Please alert me to any omissions, mistakes, broken internet links, or errors of any kind. You may do so in the comments sections or at a new email address I hope to create just for this website.